31/12/2017

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Welcome to visit shrines and temples of Japan !

Take a virtual walk through Japanese culture, with haiku as a special treat.

Check the ABC - CONTENTS on the right side!
They provide the glossary of technical terms, keywords and other items you are looking for.



Kokubun-Ji, Tsuyama, Okayama


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General Information

. Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) . - - - Shinto Shrein
..... miya, guu 宮
..... honguu 本宮 Hongu, main shrine
..... taisha 大社 big shrine, Grand Shrine
..... yashiro, sha 社 (small) shrine etc.

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .



. Buddhist Temple (tera, ...ji 寺) . - - - Buddhistischer Tempel
crossroad temple, tsujidoo 辻堂
temple hall, hall, doo 堂


. Pilgrimages in Japan - Introduction .


WASHOKU - Temple and Shrine Food  

. Sake Legends and Shinto Shrines 酒と神社 .


. Kami, Hotoke and Haiku - the beginning .

. - Shrines visited by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .

. - Temples visited by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .

. - Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶  visiting shrines and temples - .

. - Shrines visited by Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 - .   

. - Temples visited by Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 - .   

. - Masaoka Shiki 正岡子規 visiting shrines and temples - .


Apart from shrines and temples, this BLOG concentrates on introducing terminology of the Shinto background,
with haiku to go.
Unless mentioned otherwise, the translations are done by myself.


Gabi Greve
Daruma Museum Japan, Spring 2013


under construction, please come back often!
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. Japan Shinto Shrines - Facebook .

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08/11/2017

Yama no Kami Festivals matsuri

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. Yama no Kami 山の神 Yamanokami - Introduction .
. Ta no Kami 田の神 Tanokami - Introduction .
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Yama no Kami matsuri 山の神祭り Yamanokami festivals
おやまのかみさままつり O-Yama no Kami Sama Matsuri
山の神祭り(やまんかんまつり) Yamankan Matsuri
山神祭 Sanjinsai - やまのかみさい Yamanokami sai
Juunikoo matsuri 十二講まつり Juniko Matsuri





. ta no kami matsuri 田の神祭り Tanokami festivals and rituals .
Including some for Yamanokami.
- Fukui, Wakasa no Yamanokami Matsuri 山の神祭り

- Kigo for early winter
. yama no kami matsuri 山の神祭 festival for the god of the mountain .
yama no kami matsuri 山の神祭 festival for the god of the mountain
yama no maki koo 山の神講 prayer group for the god of the mountain
..... yama no koo 山の講(やまのこう)
yama no ko matsuri 山の講祭 festival of the prayer group for the god of the mountain
Held in the winter months at various shrines.
The prayer groups consisted of people who worked in the mountains. They had offerings twice a year, in early spring to open the season and in early winter to give thanks for the year.


Most festivals are held on the day 16 of a lunar month, one day after the full moon
. izayoi 十六夜 (いざよい) moon on day 16 .
In Spring to welcome Yama no Kami to the fields
In Autumn to see him off to the mountain.
Many rituals involve the offering of 16 rice dumplings.



. juuroku dango 十六団子 dumpling offerings for day 16 .

Some dates are given in the old lunar calendar, some in the modern version.

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

............................................................................ Aichi 愛知県

Sanjinsai 山神祭
People carry home some branches with flames from the festival bonfire - and there has never been a damaging fire in the village.
Even if sparks fall on dry leaves or grass, they will not cause a fire.
If people drink ritual sake and mochi rice cakes on top of the mountain to venerate Yamanokami, they will not get ill all summer.

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知多郡 Chita district 南知多町 Minami-Chita

mikigura 神酒倉 storehouse for ritual Sake
In 中洲 Nakasu there are eight families who prepare ritual sake (miki 神酒) for Shinto rituals.
Once there was a huge fire in Nakasu and most of the homes burned to the ground.
But the Storehouse in the middle of the village was spared !




............................................................................ Ehime 愛媛県
上浮穴郡 Kamiukena district 久万町 Kuma

Yamanokami Matsuri 山の神祭
The festival is on the 9th day of June. It is celebrated near a big tree between two villages. To cut down this tree will bring bad luck.
Every month on the 9th day the lumberjacks will not go into the mountain to cut trees.

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西条市 Saijo
山の神の祭りは旧正月5日・9月9日である。大きな木・枝が上で引っ付いている木・マタになっている木は、山の神の木なので切らないという。山の神の木をオサンバイサンという。山の神の木を切ると顔面蒼白になり、めまいなどを起こす。北向きに座らせて箕で3回仰ぐと治るが、これをミカジ(箕加持)という。

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内子町 Uchiko

Yamanokami no Hi Matsuri 山の神の火祭り Yamanokami Fire Festival

六角山の真下に幻想的に浮かび上がる“山ノ神”の火文字と5,000灯のオヒカリが灯されます。
 文政6年から180年にわたり連綿と受け継がれて来た伝統には、山の幸と秋の豊作を祈る思いが込められています。田園に広がる夜景もさることながら、寺村商店街には、数多くの夜店が軒を連ね、花火大会・喜鼓里太鼓の演奏・カラオケ大会など祭りムード一色に染まります。
- reference source : town.uchiko.ehime.jp/soshiki... -





............................................................................ Fukui 福井県
武生市 Takefu 坂口村 Sakaguchi

Yamanokami Matsuri 山の神祭り
The festival is on the 9th day of January and December. Yamanokami is quite wild and usually brings frost and snow on these days.
Some people have seen Yamanokami to ride past on a white horse on these days.

. Yamanokami riding 白馬 a white horse .





............................................................................ Fukushima 福島県
南会津郡 Minami-Aizu district 檜枝岐村 Hinoe

Yamanokami Matsuri 山の神祭り
If something unfortunate happens in the mountains, the hunters go back to the village and start the festival all over again (matsuri naoshi まつりなおし).
They bring the head and breast bones of a bear as offerings, sometimes even the heart of a bear as a ritual dish for Yamanokami.




............................................................................ Hyogo 兵庫県

. 山の神の祟り the curse of Yamanokami .





............................................................................ Ibaraki 茨城県
西茨城郡 Nishi Ibaraki district 岩瀬町 Iwase

Sanjinsai 山神祭
The day of the festival is the 15th day of the 11th lunar month. The straw rope around the sacred tree is burned. Eating fish grilled at this fire will prevent getting a cold in winter.





............................................................................ Iwate 岩手県
雫石町 Shizukuishi

Yamanokamisama no o-matsuri ヤマノカミ様のお祭り
At the village 南畑 / ミナミハタ Minamihata they have a festival in honor of Yamanokami. They all come together, a furoshiki 風呂敷 cloth wrapper around the head, dancing in the Shrine compound and then fall asleep all together, a custom known as zakone 雑魚寝.
This is also called daki matsuri 抱き祭 festival of embracing each other.
If people do not do it, the growth of asa 麻 hemp will be bad in the coming year.




............................................................................ Niigata 新潟県

. 山の神,猿,犬 Yamanokami, monkey and dog .
The 9th day of February and December are set for rituals of Yamanokami.

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東蒲原郡 Higashikanbara 鹿瀬町 Kanose

Yamanokami Matsuri 山の神祭り
The festival is on the 9th day of February and December.
The 9th day is 山の神の木調べの日 the day when Yamanokami inspects the trees.

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東蒲原郡 Higashikanbara 津川町 Tsugawa

. Yamanokami oroshi 山の神おろし for the festival .
kamioroshi, kami oroshi カミオロシ / 神おろし / 神降ろし "calling a Kami to earth" for an oracle

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糸魚川市 Itoigawa

Yamanokami Matsuri 山の神祭り
If people go to the mountain on the festival day of the second and 12th lunar month, they will never come back.

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岩船郡 Iwafune district 朝日村 Asahi

Yamanokami Matsuri 山の神祭り
On February and December. The 12th day is called
山の神の木種蒔きの日 - Day when Yamanokami is planting seedlings of trees
.
On the 12th day of the 12th lunar month, they call a Yamabushi 山伏 mountain priest from 山形県小国町 Oguni village in Yamagata. He puts a sacred rope around the festival altar in the home of the tooya 頭屋 "head of the festival" / 当屋. The men of the village are dressed as shrine acolytes, have their eyes blindfold and hold a ritual wand while the Yamabushi recites the 陀羅尼 Darani Sutra. Next the villagers hit the floor with a stick while chanting the 心経 Heart Sutra. Some kind of oracle is performed, asking about the hunting season and other village affairs.
shiratsuke シラツケ or shiramono tsuke シラモノツケ.
This custom has been abolished in the early Taisho period (1912).

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刈羽郡 Kariwa district 小国町 Oguni


「十二講」まつり Juniko Matsuri

Yamanokami Matsuri 山の神祭り
The festival is on the 12th day of the third lunar month. The people celebrating belong to the juunikko ジュウニッコウ(十二講) Junikko.
Everyone in the village takes a rest. If someone dares to go to the forest, he will be punished by Yamanokami.
Going to the forest on the day before the festival, one has to get a purification ritual from a special priest, 太夫様 Tayu sama.
People who do not follow the Junikko rituals are not allowed to go to the forest in spring to gather firewood.



. juunisama, jūni sama 十二様 Juni Sama - Yamanokami .

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南蒲原郡 Minamikanbara 下田村 Shitada

Yamanokami Matsuri 山の神祭り
The festival is on the 9th day of February and December.
On the ninth day Yamanokami is sowing seedlings 種蒔きの日.
On the 12th day is the New Year for Yamanokami, where he goes 木調べ to inspect the trees.

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三島郡 Mishima district 三島町 Mishima

Yamanokami Matsuri 山の神祭り
On the 9th day of February and December.
On this day the villagers are not allowed to use saws, sickles, howes and other tools.
Since Yamanokami is a female deity, they never make a knot in the rope around the charcoal hut with the binding of men 男結び.

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中頚城郡 Nakakubiki district 清里村 Kiyosato

Yamanokami Matsuri 山の神祭り
The festival is on the 8th day of February, and also called Miyama ミヤマ "Honorable Mountain".
If there are clouds in the moutain forest on this day, the harvest will be bad.

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佐渡郡 Sado district 相川町 Aikawa

Yamanokami Matsuri 山の神祭り
The festival is on the 9th day of February.
On this day Yamanokami is shooting arrows and nobody can enter the mountain forest.


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............................................................................ Tottori 鳥取県
岩美郡 Iwami district 岩美町 Iwami

Yamanokami Matsuri 山の神祭り
The festival is on the 9th day of February and October.
On these days Yamanokami walks through the forest and counts the trees. If a human is in the forest, he will be counted as a tree and die.
In the 荒金集落 Arakane hamlet, Yamanokami is giving birth, so nodody can go to the mountain. If anyone does, he will meet monsters and become crazy for the rest of his life.




............................................................................ Toyama 富山県
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氷見市 Himi

Sanjinsai 山神祭
On this festival day, Yamanokami gets drunk and nobody is allowed to disturb him.

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南砺市 Nanto city

Tengu han 天狗ハン Mister Tengu - Sanjinsai 山神祭
On the day of the festival, the charcoal makers take a rest, come together and offer ゴヘイモチ Goheimochi rice cakes and buri no sashimi ブリの刺身 Sashimi of yellowtail to the Tengu.
Once a man went into the forest to cut a tree, but was hit 睾丸 in the testicles by a branch of a tree and died.

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西砺波郡 Nishi-Tonami district 福岡町 Fukuoka

Yamanokami 山の神 / Sanjinsai 山神祭
On the festival day, Yamanokami inspects the mountian and humans are not allowed to go there.
They also should not use tools with blades on this day.




............................................................................ Yamagata 山形県
西村山郡 Nishimurayama district

Yamanokami Matsuri 山の神祭り
The festival is on the 17th day of March. On this day people do not go to the mountain. If they do and happen to meet Yamanokami, they will have bad luck for the rest of their life.

Another festival day for Yamanokami is the 12th day of the third and 12th lunar month.





............................................................................ Yamaguchi 山口県

Sanjinsai 山神祭
The day of the festival is the 26th day of the 2nd lunar month.
People bring yamaimo 山芋 yam as offerings, but they are not allowed to whistle in the compound or underground in the coal mines. To kill a dog was forbidden.
There were other taboos concerning the tankoo 炭鉱 coal mines.

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- - - - - Yamanokami as the protector deity of the coal mines.



古河好間炭鉱山神祭(昭和20年) Koga Yoshima Tanko Saijinsai Festival
Fukushima



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- reference source : nichibun yokai database -

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. Yama no Kami 山の神 - Table of Contents - .

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sangaku shinkoo 山岳信仰 religion of the High Mountains is a different matter.

. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

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- #yamanokami #godofthemountains #matsuri #yamanokamimatsuri #sanjinmatsuri -
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Yamanokami Inugami Wolf Deity

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Yama no Kami 山の神 Yamanokami - Introduction .
. Ta no Kami 田の神 Tanokami - Introduction .
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Yama no Kami 山の神 God of the Mountain
and his messenger, the Yamainu 山犬 Wolf




I use the term Yamainu do refer to the wolf as the messenger of Yamanokami.
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- - - - - Yamanokami has some animal messengers :

. Sarugami 猿神 The Monkey Deity .

. yamainu 山犬 wolf - "mountain dog" .

. inoshishi 猪 wild boar .

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- quote -
Inugami 犬神 "Dog Deity"
Japanese folklore describes Inugami as zoomorphic or anthropomorphic, dog-like beings, often similar to werewolves. They are masters of black magic and similar to the Shikigami.
Like the possession of a fox, kitsunetsuki, it is a spiritual possession by the spirit of a dog, widely known in Western Japan.

. Inugami from Oita 大分県 .

. Inugami and Legends with tofu  豆腐伝説 .


. NUE, nue 鵺, 鵼, 恠鳥, or 奴延鳥 the Nue monster .
- - - - - The cursed Nue came floating in the sea to Shikoku.
Its head landed in Sanuki and became a monkey deity.
Its tail landed in Iyo and became a serpent deity.
Its hands and feet landed in Tosa and became a dog deity 犬神 Inugami .


. yama-inu, yamainu 山犬、豺 "mountain dog" - wolf .
Legends about the wolf, not related to Yamanokami.

. Wolf Worship in Japan .
Mitsumine Jinja 三峰神社 and other shrines

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

. Yamanokami and Tengu 天狗 the Mountain Goblin .


....................................................................... Aichi 愛知県 .....

Yamainu 山犬
In the mountains live Yamanokami (Yamainu) and 天狗 Tengu. Deep mountains and high mountains are their special places and duly venerated.





....................................................................... Ehime 愛媛県 .....

yama no mamono 山の魔物 monster of the mountain
When building a new home, farmers tried to avoid the foot of a mountain protruding in a plain. This was the living space of the wolf, messenger of Yamanokami and of other mountain monsters.
If someone built a house there, his family would be cursed.

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今治市 Imabari

Inugami 犬神 / イヌガミ
In olden times people have been feeling tsukimono 憑き物 possessed by many things, like a muenbotoke 無縁仏 grave of an unknown person, hebigami 蛇神 Serpent Deity, Inugami 犬神 Dog Deity, 稲荷 Inari the Fox Deity
or even 山の神 Yamanokami.
Possessed by the Serpent Deity they could not speak any more.
Possessed by the Dog Deity they begun to bark like a dog.
Possessed by Inari they begun to eat abura-age 油揚げ fried Tofu.
Once a woman from the village married to a man in a different village, but because her family had a history of possessions, she took that with her and now this kind of possession happened in her new home and village too.

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南宇和郡 Minami-Uwa district

Yamainu 山犬 - yosuzume 夜雀 sparrows at night
Once an old woman was coming home from 岩松 Iwamatsu late at night, when Yamainu was surrounded by chirping sparrows. The Yamainu jumped around and made some sound too.

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四国中央市 Shikoku Chuo

Yamainu 山犬
家を建てるときは尾先きを忌地として嫌う。ここは山の神の使いである山犬や山の魔物が尾根づたいに歩いて来る場所で、この地に家を建てると必ず祟りがある。






....................................................................... Fukushima 福島県 .....

Yamainu 山犬
At the entrance to 奥の院 the mountain temple people offer eggs, mochi 餅 rice cakes, vegetables or fish.
If they find some of these eaten half-way by a Yamainu, they take the rest and eat it themselves as
o-te tsuita 御手付いだ "he has partaken of it".
At the mountain temple are also votive tablets of Yamainu. They will keep away conscriptions to the army and protect from bullets.


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石城郡 Iwaki district 田人村 Tabito

Yamainu 山犬
In 1883 someone got an amulet from Mitsumine Shrine and put it up. Since then the damage by wolves has subsided.



.......................................................................
相馬郡 Soma district 飯館村 Iitate

Yamainu 山犬
As a messenger of Yamanokami he can hide in small amounts of grass (三寸の草がくれ).
(This expression is also used for brown bears.)

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田村郡 Tamura district 小野町 Ono

Yamainu 山犬
If people walked in the forest in olden times, wolves would come after them, so they hang a hinawa 火縄 glimmering rope from the belt.
There were also many farmers being possessed by Yamainu. But the Yamainu would not bite a human, unless the human was lying on the ground, having fallen down.
If the Yamainu was jumping over a human, he would pee and the urin come into the eyes, making the human almost blind.
So while walking in the mountains, you better look down and do not stumble.






....................................................................... Gunma 群馬県 .....

碓氷郡 Usui district 松井田町 Matsuida

Yamainu 山犬
The monkey (saru) is also a messenger of Yamanokami, so the word SARU サル was not to be used while working in the mountains.




....................................................................... Kagawa 香川県 .....

Yamainu 山犬
In the mountains is a road where evil spirits pass (Mashoosuji 魔性筋 Masho, Evil Spirit Road").
Even if farmers are in a hurry and have to take this road, they will hear strange noises. If they pray to Yamanokami for help. a wolf will come along and show them the road.

Yamainu 山犬
Once a man was on his way back home from cutting tobacco leaves, but was very tired. From the place with the sanctuary of Yamanokami a Yamainu was following him until he was back home safe.
If people get lost in the mountains, a Yamainu often comes to lead them to safety.

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仲多度郡 Nakatado district 琴南町 Kotonami

Yamainu san 山犬さん
If people spent the night in a mountain hut but have to go home fast for some reason, they must be careful not to meet monsters on the road.
If they are in peril, they call out
"Yama no Kami san tasukete kudasare" 「山の神さん助けてくだされ」Please, Yamanokami, come and help me!
then two wolves come along and lead him the way home.





....................................................................... Nagano 長野県 .....

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東筑摩郡 Higashi-Chikuma district 四賀村 Shiga

Yamainu 山犬 - 天狗 Tengu
Tengu as an incarnation of Yamanokami is quite wild, but Tengu is not an ancestor deity.

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北安曇野郡 Kita-Azumino district 小谷村 Otari

Yamainu 山犬 - 天狗 Tengu
The Tengu of this village is a monster with one eye and one leg.
Also called Chinba チンバ (the lame one) in Matsumotodaira 松本平, the Matsumoto plain.

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下伊那郡 Shimoina district, Shimo-Ina 天龍村 Tenryu

Yamainu 山犬
Once a hunter wanted to have a young Yamainu and prayed to Yamanokami. He granted his wish and gave him two puppies. Once he went hunting but could not find anything, so he made a fire to rest.
He said to the wolves: "I will have a bite and go to sleep here. Since I could not find anything today, you will have to go without food, I am very sorry."
The wolves put their tails in water and extinguished the fire many times. He thought that was strange and climbed on a tree to have a look. He saw the wolves biting into his straw coat on the ground and finally realized they wanted to kill him. So he shot them. Then he prayed for their souls.

O-Inu sama お犬様
At the 太子堂 Taishi-Do temple hall the object of veneration is the skull of a Yamainu. The 村松家 Muramatsu family takes care of the sanctuary. Their ancestor had once shot a wolve and then realizet it was a Yamainu, so he prayed for his soul and handed the custom down in his family.

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Yamainu 山犬 - 六ツ地蔵 / ムツジゾウ Mutsu Jizo - Six Jizo
On the border between Nagano and Aichi there is a memorial mound called Mutsu Jizo (the normal reading is roku Jizo).
This mound is not very old. Once during a strong rain six human skeletons were washed down and then buried and venerated here. The seventh man of this group had survived to tell the story. He had been rescued by a Yamainu showing him the way to the village 三河の富山村漆島 Tomiyama in Aichi.
The Yamainu is venerated in this region as the messenger of Yamanokami.





....................................................................... Shizuoka 静岡県 .....

Yamainu 山犬
Once a couple was preparing the mountain fields, burning down the bushes. When they took a break, ate their rice and made some tea, they forgot to make an offering of some ears of rice to Yamanokami. That night Yamainu were howling all night around their home. After that, they never forgot to make the offerings.






....................................................................... Tokushima 徳島県 .....

. Inugami and suikazura スイカズラ / 吸葛 / 忍冬 honeysuckle .

In 徳島県三好郡祖谷山 the Iya valley of Tokushima there is a kind of Inugami monster called Suikazura.
It is said to be a bit larger than a rat and lives in the warmth of the hearth in homes.


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- reference source : nichibun yokai database -

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source : ..ryo-jin.at.webry.info..

2匹の山犬を両脇に従えた山の神。Scroll of Yamanokami with 2 Yamainu at his side.
On the right is the deity 大山祗神(おおやまつみ) Oyamatsumi,
on the left his daughter 木花咲耶姫命(このはなさくやひめ) Konohanasakuya Hime.


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. jūni sama 十二様 Juni Sama, "Honorable 12" mountain deities, .

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:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

sangaku shinkoo 山岳信仰 religion of the High Mountains is a different matter.

. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

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05/11/2017

Saruhachi Bonno deity

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Yama no Kami 山の神 Yamanokami - Introduction .
. Ta no Kami 田の神 Tanokami - Introduction .
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Yama no Kami 山の神 God of the Mountain
and 申八梵王 / さるはちぼんのう Saruhachi Bonno Monkey deity







At the temple Jikooji 都幾山慈光寺 Jiko-Ji
埼玉県比企郡ときがわ町西平386 / 386 Nishidaira, Tokigawa-machi, Hiki-gun, Saitama

This temple is Nr. 9 on the pilgrimage to 33 Kannon Temples in Bando (the Kanto region)
坂東三十三観音札所 Nr. 9.

The messenger of the deity Sanno Gongen 山王権現 is a monkey, and the animal is sometimes seen as a deity itself, protecting people from harm and bringing good health to the children.

The monkey is also the messenger of 山の神 Yamanokami.
The whole mountain around the temple Jiko-Ji is seen as the territory of Yamanokami, and the monkey is free to roam the fields and forests.
The local people call the monkey Saruhachi Buddhist King and protect it.

The monkey on the stone relief is clad like the dancing monkey of Sanbaso.
The stone dates back to 1786.

.......................................................................

. Sanno Gongen 山王権現 and the Monkey .
Sarutahiko deity 猿田彦, 猿田彦神 - Sarugami 猿神 Monkey Deity

. Hiyoshi Taisha 日吉大社 Great Hiyoshi Shrine .
and the deity Sanno, the "Mountain King"

. sanba sarugaku 三番猿楽, 三番叟 Sanbaso, Sambaso dance .
Sanbaso is an auspicious dance, often performed during the New Year season.



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- - - - - Yamanokami has some animal messengers :

. Sarugami 猿神 The Monkey Deity .

. yamainu 山犬 wolf - "mountain dog" .

. inoshishi 猪 wild boar .

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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

Legends about Yamanokami and Sarugami 猿神 The Monkey Deity
Sarugami was known in various provinces, for example in 備前 Bizen and 備後 Bingo in Okayama.


Sarugami taiji 猿神退治 driving out the Sarugami - folktale
About the human sacrifice of a young girl
At the house where a white arrow was stuck, a girl had to be given as human sacrifice for Sarugami.
Then a 山伏 Yamabushi mountain priest came and tried to help. At 丑三つ時 a ghostly hour a monster came wandering from behind the Shrine and begun dancing around the carriage with the girl. When he tried to open the box, the Yamabushi let his dog run and kill the monster.
In the morning they came and had a good look at it - it was an old monkey.


- reference source : manga nihon mukashibanashi -


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.......................................................................... Ehime 愛媛県

.......................................................................
上浮穴郡 久万高原町

Sarugami 猿神 Monkey Deity
Nue 鵺,Sarugami 猿神,hebigami (jashin) 蛇神,Inugami 犬神
The mother of Minamoto no Yorimasa (源頼政) (1106 – 1180) was severely ill.
源頼政の母の病が重かった頃、頭は猿、尾は蛇に似た鵺という怪獣が京都の紫宸殿に現れ、頼政が退治を命じられた。仁平3年4月7日、頼政は母から贈られた矢で鵺を射落とした。その夜、母は他界したが、鵺は現れなくなったという。退治された鵺は斬られて摂津の川尻へ流されたが、四国に流れ着いて祟りをなしたとか、頭は讃岐に着き猿神に、尾は伊予で蛇神に、手足は土佐、阿波に着いて犬神になったともいわれる。
- 頭が猿、足が犬で尾が蛇である怪獣を切ったところ、各部分が別のところに着き、蛇神・猿神。犬神となった。その後狐つき等も入ってきた。蛇神の憑く家系があったが蛇の嫌いなものを撒くと、帰るといって離れていく。

.......................................................................
今治市 Imabara 玉川町 Tamagawa

Sarugami Sama 猿神様
猿神様は竜岡下鍛冶屋部落にある。昔、村人が身ごもった猿を撃とうとしたところ、猿が両手を合わせて拝むようにして救いを求めたが、村人は猿を撃ち殺した。やがて部落内に様々な災いがあったので、宮を建てて猿神様として祀ることになったという。

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Sarugami Jinja 猿神神社 Sarugami Shrine
愛媛県大洲市豊茂 / Toyoshige, Ozu, Ehime
Deity in residence : 猿田彦神 Sarutahiko



.......................................................................... Gifu 岐阜県

Sarugami 猿神 Monkey Deity
An itinerant priest had come from the province of the other side of the waterfall. The villagers were quite happy to have him and gave him a young girl as a wife.
This priest even tried to make the girl a human sacrifice for Sarugami, the local Yamanokami.

.......................................................................
大野郡 Ono district 荘川村 Shokawa

Sarugami taiji 猿神退治 Getting rid of Sarugami
On the evening before the Shrine Festival, villagers had to offer a girl to 大猿 the Great Monkey. A monk came and tried to change the events by making the Great Monkey a living sacrifice.
But the Monkey cried terribly in great fear and eventually the monk took pity and let him run in to the mountain.





.......................................................................... Iwate 岩手県

Yamanokami is seen as a monkey or as a woman.
Yamanokami of the 道地 Dochi region is called テングサン Tengu san.




.......................................................................... Kochi 高知県

Yamanokami 山の神
In the 土佐郡 Tosa district, 杣 forest workers have to observe certain taboos before entering the forest.
They must not use 不浄の火 improper fire. They should not use the words hari 針 needle, neko 猫 cat, saru 猿 monkey, or boozu 坊主 priest.
They also do not build a group of seven people.

. shichinin misaki 七人ミサキ "Misaki of seven people" .
who died together in an accident




................................................................... Kumamoto 熊本県

. 木葉猿 Konoha Saru 木の葉猿 monkey from Konoha village .





.......................................................................... Miyagi 宮城県

Takebera Taro 竹箆太郎 The Brave Dog Shippetaro
The story of a human sacrifice.
. Shippeitaro 竹箆太郎 / しっぺい太郎 - 早太郎 Hayataro, the spiritual dog .

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伊具郡 Igu district 丸森町 Marumori

Sanno Iwaya 山王岩屋,Sarutobi 猿跳 Monkeys Jumping
Near the smalles part of the gorge of river Abukuma there are two huge rocks facing each other.
The Deity from 霊山 Mount Ryozen was known as 山王権現 Sanno Gongen and his messenger, the monkey, could jump from one rock to the other, Sarutobi.
The warrior 安倍貞任 Abe no Sadato defended this area.

. 安倍貞任 Abe no Sadato (1019 – 1062) .
and Sakanoue no Tamuramaro 坂上田村麻呂 . (758 - 811)



Sanno Iwaya densetsu 山王窟伝説 Sanno rock at 骨寺村 Honedera mura "bone temple village".
and the legend of 山王の鬼 Sanno no Oni, Sakanoue no Tamuramaro 坂上田村麻呂 . (758 - 811)
source : hiraizumi-yukari.com...


- quote -
骨寺村 Honederamura Shoen Iseki

The map is drawn on four pieces of paper joined together, with the top of the map pointing west; the entire village is depicted. The boundaries of the village---Kagikake in the east, Sanno no Iwaya in the west, the Iwai River in the south, and the ridgeline from Mitakeato to Masaka Shindo in the north---are represented with bold lines.
..... Regarding the religious activities of the village, the Sanno no Iwaya in the west gives a strong impression that the village as a whole was formed as a foothold for the Sanno faith of the Tendai Sect; other religious elements are the Honedera Site and Monks’ Quarter Site on the western plateau, indicated with marks representing pillar sites. .....
- - Comparison with the Landscape Today
..... Sanno no Iwaya, drawn just below and more clearly than Komagatane on the Illustrated Map of Households, is on the western boundary of the village. To the east of it, the words “Honedera Temple Site” and “Monks’ Quarter Site” are marked with figures that appear to be pillar sites. On the Illustrated Map of Shrines and Temples “Hakusan” and “Terasaki” are written on a plateau slightly higher than the rice paddies in the western part of the village. "Rokusho no Miya" on the Illustrated Map of Households is drawn slightly apart from them, in the northern part of the plateau. Hakusan Shrine still remains in the same spot as the map, but Honedera Temple, for which the village was named, was already lost in the Kamakura period, and its site, including Monks’ Quarter, is yet to be found. .....
- source : city.ichinoseki.iwate.jp -



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栗原市 Kurihara City

Yamanokami 山の神
Yamanokami does not like the love song サンサシグレ "sansa shigure" , which is song for various rituals.
Forest workers are not allowed to hum the melody while working.
Hunters are not allowed to use the word MONKEY while they are in the moutains.




.......................................................................... Nagano 長野県
東筑摩郡 Higashi-Chikuma district 四賀村 Shiga mura

Tengu 天狗
Wolves, monkeys and wild boars are the messengers of Yamanokami.
Yamanokami is quite wild and the Tengu maybe an incarnation.




.......................................................................... Niigata 新潟県
中頚城郡 Naka-Kubiki district 吉川町 Yokawa

山の神,猿,犬 Yamanokami, monkey and dog
The 9th day of the second and 12th lunar month are set for rituals of Yamanokami.
If people go to the mountain forest and see a monkey running around riding on a dog, they are doomed to die.




.......................................................................... Saitama 埼玉県
入間郡 Iruma district 毛呂山町 Moroyama

Since the monkey is Yamanokami, people are not allowed to do forest work on 申の日 the days of the monkey.
If they do, they will have a lot of problems.




................................................................ Tokushima 徳島県

Sarugami 猿神
Once upon a time
a strange Yokai monster (the Nue) was flying in the sky. A brave samurai shot it down with three arrows.
The head became Inugami 犬神 the Dog Deity,
the body became Sarugami and
the tail became the plant suikazura スイカズラ / 吸葛 honeysuckle, Lonicera japonica (other versions say 蛇 a serpent).
- or in another version -
The head flow off to 讃岐国 Sanuki and became Sarugami.
The body flew off to 阿波国 Awa and became 犬神 Inugami,
the tail flew off to 備前国 Bizen and became the plant Suikazura.



. NUE, nue 鵺, 鵼, 恠鳥, or 奴延鳥 the Nue monster .
- - - - - The cursed Nue came floating in the sea to Shikoku.
Its head landed in Sanuki and became a monkey deity.
Its tail landed in Iyo and became a serpent deity.
Its hands and feet landed in Tosa and became a dog deity.

. suikazura スイカズラ / 吸葛 / 忍冬 と伝説 Legends about honeysuckle .

.......................................................................
三好市 Miyoshi city

Sarutahiko 猿田彦
The makers of wooden tools and toys, kijiya 木地屋, venerate Yamanokami. If normal people go to their places of worship and make fire, they will find a cruel death.
Since Yamanokami is Sarutahiko, they are not allowed to use the word SARU (monkey) while they do their work.





................................................................ Wakayama 和歌山県
日高郡 Hidaka district 龍神村 Ryujin Mura (Dragon God Village)

sarusuberi 猿すべり
Once Yamanokami and 水の神 Mizunokami, the God of the Water, had a contest about which had more, trees in the forest or fish in the water. They called out each name and counted it. In the end Yamanokami seemed to have lost because he called two names, 猿すべり Sarusuberi and さるたの木 Saruta no ki, for the same tree.
They tore the records and tried to forget about it.
But for some reason, the 7th day of the 11th lunar month became
山の神の木数えの日 the day of Yamanokami counting trees.
If a person goes to the mountain forest on this day, he will be counted as a tree.


. sarusuberi 百日紅 Crape myrtle .
Even monkeys fall from trees! sarusuberi!

. Mizu no Kamisama 水の神様 God of Water .

A similar story of counting is told in Shiga
. The number of their kenzoku 眷属 followers and servants .

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- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -
17 猿神 (09)

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. Yama no Kami 山の神 - Table of Contents - .

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

sangaku shinkoo 山岳信仰 religion of the High Mountains is a different matter.

. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

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04/11/2017

Yamanokami inoshishi wild boar

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Yama no Kami 山の神 Yamanokami - Introduction .
. Ta no Kami 田の神 Tanokami - Introduction .
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Yama no Kami 山の神 God of the Mountain
and his messenger, the inoshishi 猪 wild boar



. Ta no Kami, Tanokami 田の神 God of the Rice Fields
and inoko 亥の子 / イノコ / 亥子 the "young wild boar" .


- - - - - Yamanokami has some animal messengers :

. Sarugami 猿神 The Monkey Deity .

. yamainu 山犬 wolf - "mountain dog" .

. inoshishi 猪 wild boar .

.......................................................................


. Misaki ミサキ / 御先 / 御前 / 御崎 Legends about the Misaki deity .
A deity that can bring misfortune or curses (tatari-gami 祟り神).
Yamanokami is also venerated as ミサキさん Misaki san in some regions, especially in Okayama.


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伊吹山の山の神は「白猪」White Wild Boar from Mount Ibukiyama





. Mount Ibuki 伊吹山 Ibukiyama .

Yamato Takeru was a legendary prince and warrior who traveled a lot and defeated his enemies. However, he met his demise at Mt. Ibuki when he battled an evil god disguised as a white boar.
Yamato Takeru defeated the boar, but not before the boar showered him with poisonous mist. He went to Isame no Shimizu in Samegai whose waters healed him.
Then he went on to Ise, but died soon afterward.
- source : photoguide.jp/pix/thumbnails... -

. Prince Yamatotakeru 日本武尊 Yamato Takeru .


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下河辺行平 Shimokobe Yukihira (around 1180) tried to shoot an Inoshishi, the alter-ego of Yamanokami,
but he missed the shot. He was cursed however and died that night.



Shimokobe Soshi Yukihira was a famous archer who taught archery to shogun Minamoto no Yoriie in 1189.
He was a descendent of Fujiwara no Hidezato, a famous archer of the Heian period.
- Koga Castle 古河城 Koga-jō
The fortification at Koga may date to the late Heian period or early Kamakura period, and the Azuma Kagami refers to a fortification in Koga built by Shimokobe Yukihira before 1180, although it is not certain if it was in this location.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .



....................................................................... Ehime 愛媛県 .....

.......................................................................
南宇和郡 Minami-Uwa district 城辺町 Shobencho

Yamanokami 山の神 Misaki ミサキ
A member of the Konishi family had killed an Inoshishi and was cursed by Yamanokami.
They had killed an Inoshishi which had destroyed the rice fields in Autumn, dug a shishiana 猪穴 hole to throw in the dead body of a wild boar and were thus cursed.

.......................................................................
南宇和郡 Minami-Uwa district 城辺町 Shobencho  御荘町 Mishocho

shishi misaki シシミサキ "Wild Boar Misaki Deity"
In 城辺町僧都 Tanabe Sozu there is a place called Shishi Misaki.
During the siege of Mount Heiizan in 1571, many people fled via 上岡 Kamioka. A soozu 僧都 high priest prayed and let them flee when a group of wild boar hunters came by. But a child cried and they were arrested and killed.
The priest and the wild boar had been an incarnation of Yamanokami and so the people now call this event Shishi Misaki.

. Misaki ミサキ / 御先 / 御前 / 御崎 Legends about the Misaki deity .




....................................................................... Gifu .....

猪穴(ししあな) Shishiana and 猪垣 Shishigaki
not related to Yamanokami
星宮神社 Hoshinomiya Jinja
- reference source : sukima.com/08_hida00_02... -




....................................................................... Hyogo 兵庫県 .....
神崎郡 Kanzaki district 神河町 Kamikawa

山の神の祟り the curse of Yamanokami
On January 9, 1900, a hunter went hunting for Inoshishi. He had forgotten that this was 山神祭 the day of the festival for Yamagami.
When he rested at a spot where wild boars usually pass, one wild boar came trotting along. He took aim and wanted to press the trigger, when suddenly the wild boar became invisible and instead 黒牛 a huge black bull, like a monster, stood there. This beast became bigger and bigger. Going crazy with fear, he fled the spot and ran home, but never recovered.

山神祭 - おやまのかみさままつり O-Yama no Kami Sama Matsuri
. Yama no Kami matsuri 山の神祭り Yamanokami festivals .



....................................................................... Nagano 長野県 .....

. Monkey and wolf - messengers of Yamanokami .



....................................................................... Yamanashi 山梨県 .....
富士吉田市 Fujiyoshida

山の神の天罰 divine punishment of Yamanokami
A skilfull hunter almost shot down a wild boar at 富士の裾野 the foot of Mount Fujisan. When the animal came closer, he prayed to Yamanokami to help him win this battle and said it would be the last Inoshishi. And indeed, he could shoot the animal and carry it home. He begun boasting about his "deal with Yamanokami".
But then he went out hunting again and never came home.
When they looked for him, they found him stuck in the snow.
This was the divine punishment of Yamanokami.


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- reference source : nichibun yokai database -


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. coping with Inoshishi in my mountain area .
October 2017

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. Yama no Kami 山の神 - Table of Contents - .

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

sangaku shinkoo 山岳信仰 religion of the High Mountains is a different matter.

. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
- #yamanokami #godofthemountains ##inoshishi #wildboar -
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24/10/2017

Kumano Junisha Gongen

[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
. Shinto Shrines (jinja 神社) - Introduction .
. kami 神 Shinto deities .
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Kumano Juunisha Gongen 熊野十二社権現 12 Kumano Shrines
Kumano Junisha Gongen




. Kumano Jinja 熊野神社 Kumano Shrines .
There are many Kumano shrines in Japan.

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- quote
Kumano Junisha Gongen 熊野十二社権現 Twelve Avatars of Kumano
Kumano Sansho Gongen 熊野三所権現 Three Avatars of Kumano.
The Kumano triad is composed of three Shintō deities and their Buddhist counterparts.
There is also a larger gongen group called the Kumano Jūnisha Gongen 熊野十二社権現 (Twelve Avatars of Kumano), which includes the main three plus nine lesser deities.
A 13th deity, named Hirō Gongen 飛滝権現 (also read Hiryū Gongen), deifies the Nachi Waterfall in the Kumano area. The three main shrines are Hongū 本宮 (Kumano Nimasu Jinja 熊野座神社); Shingū 新宮 (Kumano Hayatama Jinja 熊野速玉神社); and Nachi 那智 (Kumano Fusumi Jinja 熊野夫須美神社).
All three are located near the southern edge of Wakayama prefecture. To learn more about the famed three shrines of Kumano, plus other deity associations at Kumano, click here.
- - Hongū, Ketsumiko-gami 家都御子神 = Amida Buddha
- - Shingū, Hayatamamiya 速玉神 = Yakushi Buddha
- - Nachi, Fusumi 夫須美 or Musubi no Kami 結びの神 = 1000-Armed Kannon Bodhisattva
- source : MarkSchumacher


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Kumano Sanzan
The three Kumano Sanzan shrines are the Sōhonsha ("head shrines") of all Kumano shrines and lie between 20 to 40 km from each other. They are connected to each other by the pilgrimage route known as "Kumano Sankeimichi" (熊野参詣道).
The great Kumano Sanzan complex also includes two Buddhist temples, Seiganto-ji and Fudarakusan-ji.

The religious significance of the Kumano region goes back to prehistoric times and therefore predates all modern religions in Japan. The area was, and still is, considered a place of physical healing. Each shrine initially had its own separate form of nature worship, but in the 10th century, under the influence of Buddhism, the three came to be worshiped together as the three deities of Kumano.
Because at the time Japanese kami were believed to be emanations of buddhas (honji suijaku theory), the three came to be associated with the Buddhas.
Kuniyasutamahime became associated with Avalokiteśvara sahasrabhūja (Senju Kannon, "Thousand-Armed Avalokiteśvara"), Bhaisajyaguru (Yakushi Nyōrai) and Amitābha (Amida Nyōrai).
he site became, therefore, a unique example of shinbutsu-shūgō or the fusion between Buddhism and Japanese indigenous religion. Thereafter the Kumano Sanzan site attracted many worshipers and became a popular pilgrimage destination. In the 11th century pilgrims were mostly members of the Imperial family or aristocrats, but four centuries later they were mostly commoners.
The visit was referred to as the "Kumano ant pilgrimage" (蟻の熊野参り) because they could be seen winding through the valleys like so many ants.
- source : wikipedia -

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熊野速玉大社の社殿・祭神・本地仏
上四社 - Top four shrines
第一殿 結宮 Isamiya - 熊野夫須美大神(熊野結大神)Kumano Fusumi - 千手観音 Senju Kannon
第二殿 速玉宮 Hayatama - 熊野速玉大神 Kumano Hayatama - 薬師如来 Yakushi Nyorai
第三殿 証誠殿 Shojoden - 家津美御子大神・国常立尊 Ketsumiko - 阿弥陀如来 Amida Nyorai
第四殿 若宮 Wakamiya - 天照大神 Amaterasu - 十一面観音 Juichimen Kannon
第四殿 神倉宮 Kamigura no Miya - 高倉下命 Takakuraji - (本地仏なし)No Buddha

中四社 - Center four shrines
第五殿 禅児宮 - 天忍穂耳尊 Amenooshiomimi - 地蔵菩薩 Jizo Bosatsu
第六殿 聖宮 - 瓊々杵尊 Ninigi - 龍樹菩薩 Ryuju Bosatsu (Nagarjuna)
第七殿 児宮 - 彦火火出見尊 Hoori - 如意輪観音 Nyoirin Kannon
第八殿 子守宮 Komori no Miya - 鵜葺草葺不合命 Ugayafukiaezu - 聖観音 Sho Kannon

下四社 - Bottom four shrines
第九殿 一万宮 - Ichiman no Miya - 国狭槌尊 Kunisatsuchi - 文殊菩薩 Monju Bosatsu
第九殿 十万宮 Juman no Miya - 豊斟渟尊 Toyokumune - 普賢菩薩 Fugen Bosatsu
第十殿 勧請宮 Kanjo no Miya - 泥土煮尊 Wahijini - 釈迦如来 Shaka Nyorai
第十一殿 飛行宮 Hiko no Miya - 大戸道尊 Otonoji - 不動明王 Fudo Myo-O
第十二殿 米持宮 Yonemochi no Miya - 面足尊 Omodaru - 多聞天 Tamonten (Bishamon Ten)

- reference source : wikipedia -


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熊野十二社権現御正体 Kumano Junisha Gongen Mishotai - Bronze mirror


Mirror from the Kamakura period

Center : 阿弥陀如来(本宮)Amida Nyorai
Left of center: 千手観音(那智)Senju Kannon
Right of center : 薬師如来(新宮)Yakushi Nyorai
Top line center : 釈迦如来(勧請十五所)Shaka Nyorai
文殊菩薩(一万宮)Monju Bosatsu
地蔵菩薩(禅師宮)Jizo Bosatsu
龍樹菩薩(聖宮)Ryuju Bosatsu (Nagarjuna)
不動明王(飛行夜叉)Fudo Myo-O
毘沙門天(米持金剛)Bishamon Ten
聖観音(子守宮)Sho Kannon
如意輪観音(児宮)Nyoirin Kannon
普賢菩薩(十万宮)Fuden Bosatsu

- Look at the map with the 12 shrines
- reference source : bunka.nii.ac.jp/heritages... -


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江戸の熊野十二社 Kumano Junisha in Edo




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神奈川県 Kanagawa 鎌倉 Kamakura 十二所 Juniso

Juniso Jinja 十二所神社
This shrine is located up in the mountain, at the foot of Asahina pass.



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Beyond a stone shrine gate, of a myojin-style torii (明神鳥居), lies the main building directly ahead. To the right of the main hall are three small shrines: Yamano Jinja (山の神社), Hoso Jinja (疱瘡神社) and Usa Hachiman Jinja (宇佐八幡神社).
A large, heavy-looking stone to the right of the torii is called Hyakukan-ishi (百貫石, or Hyakkan-ishi). The stone, long neglected, weighs roughly 110 kilograms and was once a popular object of weightlifting at shrine festivals. Further to the right stands Kaguraden Hall (神楽殿), for sacred music and dances.
... Early in the Meiji period (1867-1912), under a government policy of separating Shintoism and Buddhism, the shrine was moved from the grounds of Kosokuji Temple (光則寺) in the neighborhood to its present site and dedicated to
seven deities in Heaven and five deities presiding on Earth.
At the same time, the name was changed to Juniso Jinja Shrine from
Kumano Juniso Gongensha (熊野十二所権現社).
- source : kcn-net . org - Juniso Jinja 十二所神社 -



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Kumano Densetsu 熊野伝説 Plum wine from Kumano


幻の梅酒 - a special present in a white bottle.

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- - - - - Legends and Tales about Kumano 熊野伝説 - - - - -


. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

........................................................................  Wakayama 和歌山県
東牟婁郡 Higashi-Muro district 本宮町 Hongu

oogon butsu 黄金仏
文政8年の春に、熊野本宮社に堤を築こうとして、境内にある大黒島という岩山から採石していた。作業者が休憩したら、巌上の土砂が崩れるが、作業中には崩れない。また多くの烏が集まってきた。心弱い人は逃げだしたが、強い人が作業を続けると、土中から甕が出てきた。その中には黄金の阿弥陀仏が入っていた。

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- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -
191 熊野 to explore (01)
10 熊野 天狗 (00)

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- Reference : 熊野十二社権現

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. jjūni sama 十二様 Juni Sama, "Honorable 12" deities .

. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

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