06/03/2013

Jingu-Ji

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Jinguuji 神宮寺 Jingu-Ji

This refers to a temple within a shrine compound.


住吉神宮寺 Sumiyoshi Jingu-Ji

. Sumiyoshi Jinja 住吉神社 Sumiyoshi Shrines in Japan .


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quote
Jingūji (shrine temples), also called
jinganji 神願寺 or jingoji 神護寺,

were Buddhist temples associated with Shinto shrines. Jingūji were built according to the notion of the "amalgamation of Shintō and Buddhism" (shinbutsu shūgō).

The first recorded instance of a jingūji is found in the first volume of Nihon ryōiki (Miraculous Tales of Japan): to fulfill the vow made at the time of the Kudara (Paekche) expedition during the reign of Saimei (r. 665-661), an ancestor of the senior district chieftain (dairyō) in the Mitani District of Bingo Province (present day eastern Hiroshima Prefecture) founded a temple named Mitanidera for the sake of the deities. Also, in the vicinity of Usa Jingū, Buddhist temples such as Hokkyōji and Kokūzōji were built during Tenmu's reign (672-86, the Hakuhō era).

These temples were later consolidated into the jingūji of Usa Shrine called Mirokuji. However, temples that were given the title of jingūji (jingōji) and clearly dedicated to particular shrines appeared a little later.

The earliest example was Kehi Jingūji. It was founded in 715, according to Muchimaro's biography in the Tōshi kaden (The Biographies of the Fujiwara Family). It was followed by Wakasahiko Jinganji, built in the Yōrō era (717-24); and by Kashima Jingūji, which was constructed in the Tempyō-shōhō era (749-75). Thus, a number of jingūji were founded in various locales during the first half of the eighth century.

In the late Nara period, during the reign of Shōtoku (764-770), the royal court designated Ōkasedera, a private temple in Ise Province, as the jingūji of Ise Shrines.

The early jingūji were constructed based on the premise that deities — who were thought to have been born as kami due to karmic retribution — could be liberated from their suffering through Buddhism. Such jingūji were generally not built by the state. Instead, popular ascetics erected these temples, with the assistance of shrine priests (kannushi) and local leaders. Typical examples were shrine temples in Tado and in Kashima that were founded by the wondering monk Mangan.

In the Heian Period a new type of institution called the miyadera 宮寺  emerged. A miyadera was simultaneously a jingūji and a shrine. The first miyadera was established by a monk of Daianji, Gyōkyō, who "invited" (kanjō) a Hachiman deity from Usa to Iwashimizu Hachimangū (Iwashimizu Hachimangū Gokokuji). After this, other institutions such as Gionsha Kanshin'in (present-day Yasaka Jinja) and Kitano Tenmangū (Kitano Miyadera) were built.

Many of the shrines for mountain worship, such as Kumano and Hakusan, took the form of miyadera. Miyadera utilized administrative models derived from Buddhist temples — they were managed by a kengyō (superintendent), chōri (superintendent, director), bettō (director), and shugyō (secretary). Such positions were held by hereditary shasō (shrine monks) who were permitted to marry. There were also shrine priests who did not take Buddhist vows and who were lower ranking than the shasō.

Due to the influence of Buddhism, the enshrined deities (saijin) at miyadera were "vegetarians" — their shinsen (divine food offerings) did not include fish or fowl. In the early modern period, the term bettōji  別当寺 was often used for jingūji. Most of the major Shintō shrines had associated bettōji or jingūji.

However, because of the policy of shinbutsu bunri (the "separation of Shintō and Buddhism") in the early Meiji era (1868-1912), many of these shrine temples were abolished and the shasō were either driven out or forced to become lay members. The few shrine temples that survive include the jingūji of the Wakasahiko Jinja and the Seigantoji of the Kumano-nachi Taisha.
source : Satō Masato, Kokugakuin 2007


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There are also some temples with this name.


Akita, Daisen town
秋田県中央部、大仙(だいせん)市


Butenmazan 普天満山 神宮寺
Okinawa 沖縄県宜野湾市



Tado Jingu-Ji 多度神宮寺 and Tanzan Jinja 談山神社 - Nara
and Mie, Kuwana
source : chushingura.biz



Tookamachi 十日町市 神宮寺 Niigata
source : toukamati


. Uchiyama Eikyuuji 永久寺 Uchiyama Eikyu-Ji .
Yamato, Nara

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. Jinguuji 神宮寺 Jingu-Ji Fudo Temples .

. Fudō Myō-ō, Fudoo Myoo-Oo 不動明王 Fudo Myo-O
Acala Vidyârâja – Vidyaraja – Fudo Myoo .



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source : Taisaku Nogi
若狭神宮寺内陣

. Wakasa Kamo Jinja 加茂神社 and 若狭 神宮寺 Jingu-Ji .
Fukui, Obama 福井県小浜


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- - - - -  H A I K U  - - - - -


雷霆の立夏の昼をおそひけり
raitei no rikka no hiru o osoikeri


湧きのぼる雲に揺れをり大毛蓼
waki-noboru kumo ni yure-ori ooketade



山峽の村一竿の鯉幟
sankyoo no mura ichizao no koi nobori

in the gorge
one pole in the village
with a carp streamer




余生遊楽

Jinguuji Taikichi 神宮寺 泰吉
- Reference -
A haiku poet called Jinguji.

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