01/03/2016

Kakinomoto Shrines

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. Kakinomoto Hitomaro 柿本人麻呂 Hitomaru 人丸) .
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柿本神社 Kakinomoto Jinja Shrines in Japan
Kakimoto Yashiro Hitomaru Jinja 人丸神社 Hitomaru Yashiro 人丸社 / Hitomaro Jinja 人麿神社

. Kakinomoto Hitomaro 柿本人麻呂 Hitomaru 人丸 / 人麿 .
(c. 662 – 710) - Introduction

Venerated as Kakinomoto Ookami 柿本大神 Kakinomoto Okami "Great Deity"
Kakinomoto Daimyoojin 柿本大明神 Kakinomoto Daimyojin
人丸神
柿本人丸神


He was a truly "divine" Waka poet and is revered in many shrines in Japan, for various reasons.


. . . CLICK here for more Photos !


My Introduction includes the following shrines:

Kakinomoto Jinja 柿本神社 Shinto Shrine in Akashi, Hyogo
Hitomaru Jinja 人丸神社 / Kakimoto Yashiro 柿本社

1-26 Hitomarucho, Akashi, Hyogo / 明石市人丸町1-26
- He is revered as a deity to cure eye disease and other illnesses, with a legend about the 盲杖桜 "Blind Stick Cherry".

Toda Kakinomoto Shrine 戸田柿本神社 - Masuda, Tottori
Hitomaro's birth place. The priest of Toda Kakinomoto Shrine is from the 綾部家 Ayabe family, and he is the 49th of Hitomaro's mother's line.

Takatsu Kakinomoto Shrine  高津柿本神社 Masuda, Tottori
Hitomaro's death place.

Fujisaki Hachimangu 藤崎八幡宮 Kumamoto, Kyushu


Other shrines mentioned below are introduced in the links given, but not in the -Introduction- links.
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waka no kami 和歌の神 Deity of Waka poetry

Hitomaro his one of the waka sanjin (waka sanshin) 和歌三神 three great Waka deities,
The Three Gods of Waka Poetry.

住吉明神 Sumiyoshi Myojin
玉津島明神 Tamatsushima Myojin
柿本人麻呂 Kakinomoto Hitomaro


. Matsuo Basho, Oku no Hosomichi .
Sakai no Myojin Shrine 境の明神 (福島) Fukushima
Two shrines at the border to the Northern Territories. One on each side of the frontier line.
On the inner side a shrine for the female deity (Tamatsushima Myojin 玉津島) to protect the interior.
On the outer side a shrine for a male deity (Sumiyoshi Myojin 住吉) to protect from enemies of the outside. 
Travellers in the Edo period used to pray here for a safe trip and gave thanks after a trip was finished.


- - - - - Other sources quote two other poets :
衣通姫 Sotoorihime and 山部赤人 Yamabe no Akahito.




Hitomaro: Poet as God
By Anne Commons
Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (fl. ca. 690) is generally regarded as one of the pre-eminent poets of premodern Japan. While most existing scholarship on Hitomaro is concerned with his poetry, this study foregrounds the process of his reception and canonization as a deity of Japanese poetry. Building on new interest in issues of canon formation in premodern Japanese literature, this book traces the reception history of Hitomaro from its earliest beginnings to the early modern period, documenting and analysing the phases of the process through which Hitomaro was transformed from an admired poet to a poetic deity. The result is a new perspective on a familiar literary figure through his placement within the broader context of Japanese poetic culture.
- source : books.google.co.jp -


Hitomaro,
series of the Three Gods of Japanese Poetry (Waka sanjin)

Totoya Hokkei (1780–1850)


source : mfa.org/collections


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Hitomaru in the folk belief of Japan
人丸信仰とは?(柿本人麻呂にまつわる信仰)

Many shrines dedicated to him are located in the 中国地方 Chugoku Region of Western Japan.
His divinity is sometimes related to puns with his name, Hitomaru.
Hyogo and Yamaguchi have many shrines dedicated to Hitomaru.


CLICK for more photos !

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anzan no kami 安産の神 Anzan - Deity to grant easy birth
- hitomaru 人丸 - 人生まる - hito umaru - giving birth - pun
Hitomaru himself died an unnatural death.

- In the Iwami region 石見国守 and 高津柿本神社
When Hitomaru was about 50 years old, there are records indicating that he was appointed to a provincial office in Iwami Province — today the western part of Shimane Prefecture.

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人丸神社:栃木県さくら市松山新田300 / Matsuyama Shinden, Sakura, Tochigi Prefecture
人丸大明神 is revered with a statue and scroll of his poems.
He is also celebrated as protector of fire and water disasters 防火 / 水神.
During great famines 天明 / 天保の大飢饉 people prayed to him for salvation.

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川越氷川神社(柿本人麻呂神社):埼玉県川越市宮下町2-11-3 / Saitama, Kawagoe
He is also celebrated as protector of fires 防火の神.
see below - hi no kami 火の神 Deity of fire

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人丸神社:山口県萩市大字椿東中の倉1699 / Yamaguchi, Hagi
Amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 are offered here.
He is also celebrated as 学問の神、漁業の神(龍神)、商業の神(龍神)、火難除けの神

柿本人麿社:山口県周南市福川2丁目 2 Chome Fukugawa, Shūnan-shi
He is also celebrated as 疫病除・火難除・眼病平癒・学問・水難海上安全の神.

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. Anzan Kosodate 安産子育て - all about amulets for Children .
- Introduction -

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ekibyoo yoke no kami 疫病除け神 - Ekibyo Deity to ward off infectious diseases
ekibyoo, yakubyoo 疫病 pestilence, epidemy
- at many shrines in Yamaguchi 山口県 and at 高津柿本神社



人丸神社:山口県山口市宮野七房
A stone figure is venerated in a small sanctuary 小祠.

柿本神社:山口県山口市阿東徳佐台 / Dai Atōtokusashimo, Yamaguchi-shi,

柿本神社:山口県山口市阿東地福上 / Atojifukukami, Yamaguchi

柿本人麿社:山口県周南市福川2丁目 / 2 Chome Fukugawa, Shūnan-shi
In 18365, a a great famine was in the region, followed by dysentery and epidemic diseases. It only stopped when amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 were offered here.
At this shrine, Kakinomoto is also venerated for
疫病除・火難除・安産・眼病平癒・学問・水難海上安全.

人丸神社:山口県山口市鋳銭司小森 / Komori Suzenji, Yamaguchi
About 200 years ago, an epidemiy was in the region and only stopped when amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 were offered here.

人丸神社:山口県山口市徳地堀字下庄方 / Shimoshōgata Tokujihori, Yamaguchi
In 1900, a dysentery epidemy was in the region and only stopped when amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 were offered here.

人丸神社:山口県防府市東佐波令 / Higashisabaryo, Hofu
In 1799, an epidemy was in the region and only stopped when amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 were offered here.

人丸神社:岩国市竹安箕ノ越
In 1800, an epidemy was in the region of 河内郷 and only stopped when amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 were offered here.

人磨神社:山口県防府市向島 Mukoshima, Hofu
In 1865, an epidemy was in the region and only stopped when amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 were offered here.

人丸・大師堂:山口県岩国市周東町祖生今岡 Imaoka Shūtōmachi Soo, Iwakuni
In this Shrine, Kobo Daishi is also venerated. Much later Kakinomoto became
柿本大明神 -「疫病の神」.

繁枝神社(人麻呂社・おうばん社):山口県防府市台道527 / 527 Daidō, Hōfu
In 1820, an epidemy was in the region and only stopped when amulets of 人麻呂大明神 were offered here.

河内神社:山口県周南市高瀬840 Takase, Shunan
amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 are offered here to protect from epidemics.

河内神社:山口県周南市米光163-1 / 163-1 Yonemitsu, Shūnan
In 1835, an epidemy was in the region and only stopped when amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 were offered here.

飛龍八幡宮(河築神社):山口県周南市須々万本郷312 / 312 Susumahongō, Shūnan
At the shrine 河築神社 in the compound, Kakinomoto is venerated to protect from epidemics.

神沼田神社:山口県岩国市錦町深須上沼田
In 1851, an epidemy was in the region and only stopped when amulets from the Takatsu Shrine 高津柿本神社 were offered here.
In 1977, this shrine was integrated with other shrines :
白鳥神社、地主神社、杵崎神社、柿本人麻呂神社、愛宕社.

寄江柿本大明神:山口県岩国市美和町下畑柿ノ木原 Kakinokibara Miwamachi Shimohata, Iwakuni-
A statue of 人丸明神 is venerated as a protector deity for epidemics.



. Yakubyoogami 疫病神 Yakubyogami, Deity of Diseases .
- Introduction -

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enmusubi no kami 縁結びの神 Deity to find a good partner
- because he wrote many poems remembering his wife
- at 高津柿本神社 Takatsu Kakinomoto Jinja


fuufu wagoo no kami 夫婦和合の神 Fufu Wago - Deity of good couples
- because he wrote many poems remembering his wife
- at 生田神社 Ikuta Jinja (人丸神社)- Hyogo, Kobe 兵庫県神戸市中央区下山手通1-2-1

. Enmusubi 縁結び to find a good partner in life .
Takasago Legend 高砂伝説

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gakumon no kami 学問の神 - Deity of learning

- at 生田神社 Ikuta Jinja (人丸神社)- Hyogo, Kobe 兵庫県神戸市中央区下山手通1-2-1

- at 人丸神社:山口県萩市大字椿東中の倉1699 - Yamaguchi, Hagi

- at 柿本人麿社:山口県周南市福川2丁目 - Yamaguchi, 2 Chome Fukugawa, Shūnan-shi

- - 人丸神社:徳島県鳴門市里浦町里浦花面156 - Tokushima, Naruto
On his wanderings in Japan, Hitomaru came here, stayed for a while and taught Waka poetry to the local people. After his death, the shrine was erected with Hitomaru as deity of Poetry and Learning.

bungaku no kami 文学の神 - Deity of literature

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ganbyoo no kami 眼病平癒の神 - Ganbyo Deity for eye diseases
- Hyogo, Akashi 柿本神社 (see above)

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古熊神社(三森神社):山口県山口市古熊1-10-5 / Furukuma, Yamaguchi

柿本人麿社:山口県周南市福川2丁目 / 2 Chome Fukugawa, Shūnan-shi, Yamaguchi

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. me 眼 / 目 - Amulets for Eye Disease .
- Introduction -

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geinoo no kami 芸能の神 - Geino Deity of the Performing Arts

- at Yamaguchi, Ube 宇部市の人丸神社

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gyogyoo 漁業の神 - Gyogyo Deity of the fishing industry
- He is seen as 龍神, Ryujin, a Dragon Deity

- at 人丸神社:山口県萩市大字椿東中の倉1699 Yamaguchi, Hagi

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hi no kami 火の神 Deity to prevent fire
- and
protector of たたら職人 blacksmiths
- at 川越氷川神社(柿本人麻呂神社)Saitama, Kawagoe 埼玉県川越市宮下町2-11-3
4月18日に「柿本人麻呂祭」が行われる
A descendant of the Ayabe clan from Shimane is still Head Priest here, hence Kakinomoto is also venerated.



柿本人麻呂祭 Kakinomoto Hitomaro Festival
- reference : kawagoe-yell.com/annual-event -

booka no kami 防火の神 Boka - Deity to prevent fire
- hitomaru 人丸 - hi tomaru 火止まる fires stops - pun
- at 壬生寺 Mibudera (人丸塚 Hitomaruzuka)- Kyoto 京都府京都市中京区壬生梛ノ宮町31



柿本人麻呂の灰塚 Kakinomoto Hitomaro no Haizuka

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Koojin 荒神 Kojin Deity / Deity to watch over the kitchen fire 台所の火
- in the Iwami region 石見地方
- Seto Naikai region 瀬戸内海

. Aragamisama, 荒神様 Kojinsama, Kojin sama .
Kamagami 釜神 The Hearth Deity


. hi no yoojin 火の用心 watch out for fire - fire prevention .
- Introduction -

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. Munakata 宗像三女神 three female Munakata Deities .
Munakata Water Deities (suijin) and Waka Deities

Okami no kami 淤加美神 (オカミノカミ)a water deity
(闇淤加美神 Kuraokami 、闇御津羽神、闇罔象; たかおかみ / くらみつは Kuraokami, Takaokami, Kuramitsuha)

and two shrines dedicated to the Waka Poets - 和歌神社 Waka Jinja !

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. 猿田彦大神 the Great Deity Sarutahiko .
下御霊神社 Shimogoryo Jinja Kyoto - 柿本社 Kakinomoto Yashiro

At shrines for this deity Kakinomoto is also venerated as 柿本大神.

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seikatsu no shugojin 生活の守護神 Deity to protect daily life

- 石見国守 Many people in Iwami were involved in 製紙業 making paper, so he helped to keep their business prosperous
- at 高津柿本神社

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suinan yoke no kami 水難除けの神 Deity to prevent drowning and flooding
He is seen as suijin 水神 deity of water

- at 人丸神社 柿本人麿社:山口県周南市福川2丁目 - Yamaguchi 2 Chome Fukugawa, Shūnan-shi
- 水刑死に処されて非業の死を遂げたことから - Because he himself found his death sentence through drowning.


柿本人麻呂水死刑説 Theory about Kakinomoto's death by Drowning
死に臨んで自らを傷む
- reference :geocities.jp/yasuko8787 -


From waka mourning the death of a man from Sanuki Province, and a farewell poem at Kamoyama (Mt. Kamo) in Iwami province with elegies (banka, 挽歌) mourning his own death, many have seen this as Hitomaro acting as a palace official traveling to various provinces and reaching the end of his life in Iwami.
According to the Japanese scholar Itō Haku, however, this farewell poem is a folk drama portraying Hitomaro's own death, and the theory that the poem is a later counterfeit has also been suggested.
- quote wikipedia -

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shoogyoo no kami 商業の神 Shogyo - Deity of commerce and trade
- He is seen as ryuujin 龍神 Ryujin, a Dragon Deity

- at 人丸神社:山口県萩市大字椿東中の倉1699, Yamaguchi Hagi


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Fukuoka Hitomaru Shrine 人丸神社
福岡県粕屋郡新宮町下府 Shimonofu, Shingu, Kasuya District
福岡県糟屋郡新宮町桜山手

The daughter of Samurai Taira no Kagekiyo 平景清 (? - 1194) is named
Hitomaru Hime 人丸姫
and is venerated as deity at this shrine.



景清の妻は子供がないことを悲しみ、神仏に祈り続けました。治承二年(1178)3月15日に、朝日(旭)が上る時、懐妊を覚え、女の子を出産しました。
「旭」という字は「日」「丸」と書くことから「人丸」と名付けたと言われています。
- reference : lunabura.exblog.jp -

The character for morning sun 旭 can be seen as consisting of the two characters 日 and 丸, combined as Hitomaru.

. Taira no Kagekiyo 平景清 .

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Yamaguchi 柿本人麿社 / 人丸神社
山口県周南市福川2丁目 - Yamaguchi 2 Chome Fukugawa, Shūnan-shi
Hitomaro is celebrated here as
anzan no kami 安産の神 Anzan - Deity to grant easy birth
ekibyoo yoke no kami 疫病除け神 - Ekibyo Deity to ward off infectious diseases
gakumon no kami 学問の神 - Deity of learning
ganbyoo no kami 眼病平癒の神 - Ganbyo Deity for eye diseases
suinan yoke no kami 水難除けの神 Deity to prevent drowning and flooding
hinanyoke no kami 火難除けの神 Deity to prevent fire damage
- see above, hi no kami 火の神 Deity to prevent fire


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CLICK for more statues of Hitomaro .

柿本人麻呂にまつわる全国の神社仏閣(まとめ)
(A long list of shrines in Japan in honor of Hitomaro.)
- source : cultural-experience.blogspot.jp -

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人丸信仰とは?(柿本人麻呂にまつわる信仰)
- source : cultural-experience.blogspot.jp -

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. Shrine, Shinto Shrine (jinja 神社) - Introduction .

. kami 神 Shinto deities - ABC-LIST - .

- #kakinomotoshrines #hitomarushrines #hitomaroshrines -
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. Kakinomoto Hitomaro 柿本人麻呂 Hitomaru 人丸) .

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